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    Новое сообщениеот oreok » Чт 03 ноя 2005, 20:22

    HHHHMMMM… as far as I can see, this little post needs some fresh “food”… Let’s see what I can do… Here are some cultural news I hope you might find interesting.

    Many of you probably heard about this in the news of your own countries but nevertheless I would like to mention it here, too ‘cause I think it’s very important.

    Unfortunately, some days ago ROSA PARKS died. This extraordinary, admirable Afro-American lady did more for her country and the world than any politician could ever do. In a time (during the 1950ies / 1960ies) when racism and racial segregation had reached its peak in the USA, Rosa Parks, in her way, showed to the racists in her country where to stick their disgusting ideology. She was sitting in a bus when she was asked to get up from her seat because it was reserved for whites only. Rosa Parks refused to leave her seat and this action caused such a “scandal” among the racist community and gave hope to all people, whites and Afro-Americans, who were dreaming of a society where human dignity would not be a question of skin colour. Rosa’s resistance encouraged and strengthened the Civil Rights movement and she committed herself to the fight against racism, supporting Martin Luther King in his work.

    May Rosa’s spirit and courage inspire this world and may people remember her in love and respect.


    My sweethearts, allow me to recommend a film to you which is going to be shown in cinemas soon. It is actually a documentary called “MAD HOT BALLROOM” directed by a lady who is a genuine New Yorker herself. Her documentary deals with a project that was started in a number of New York’s schools with the aim to keep teen age kids away from the streets where very often they get involved with crime, drugs and violence.

    The docu shows kids, boys and girls, from four different schools participating in this project in which the children are given dancing lessons in ballroom dancing e.g. waltz and we see them participate in ball room dance competitions where one school meets the other. The ball room dancing project in New York has been running successfully for quite a while now and what it is really about becomes obvious while watching the kids and listening to what they express about their feelings, their lives and their dreams. The majority of those children come from migrant families, they grow up in difficult social situations and everyday life is rather tough for them especially when success at school is average. Through music and movement, dancing with a partner of the opposite sex, we witness the kids developing a sense of discipline, self-confidence and pride but also the relations between the sexes improve considerably and they learn to see themselves and their dancing partner as a team, treating each other with more respect, appreciation and affection.

    Personally, I’ve seen a number of scenes of this docu and I’m absolutely enthusiastic about it. Moreover, the reviews I know are extremely positive and so I’m sure it’s worth seeing the whole of it in the cinema.


    Recently, Maria Riva, the daughter of the one and only MARLENE DIETRICH, published a book which contains a collection of poems Marlene wrote in the years after she had stopped performing. She used to write them in the evenings in her Parisian apartment and this artistic hobby of hers was something like a secret the public never really knew about. The reviews on Marlene’s poetry are rather positive and she really seems to have had a poetic talent. As far as I know, for the time being the book is only available in German but hopefully there will be an English translation in future.

    Though Marlene had a number of relations in her life, it is assumed, judging from private letters and film records, statements by Marlene’s daughter, friends and colleagues etc. that the French actor Jean Gabin was the love of her life and the only man she really ever wanted in her heart. Honeys, you will find a picture of the young Jean Gabin at this forum at the post “PHOTOS”, “FAN-ART WITH DANYA” I added it here some time ago because our sweet Danya looks so much like him…

    When Marlene died, she was buried in Berlin, the town where she was born.


    For all the football fans among us: Today GERD MUELLER is celebrating his 60th birthday !!! He was one of the greatest, if not the greatest, striker in post war German football and one of the most acknowledged and most admired football players in the world. He’s a living legend and his name and achievement have always been ambassadors of German football. HAPPY BIRTHDAY !!!!!!!!!!
    I AM ROMANTIC YOU KNOW, READY TO MAKE ANY KIND OF FOOLISHNESS FOR LOVE. (DANYA)

    A WOMAN KNOWS THE FACE OF THE MAN SHE LOVES AS A SAILOR KNOWS THE OPEN SEA (HONORE DE BALZAC)

    THE ARTIST VOCATION IS TO SEND LIGHT INTO THE HUMAN HEART (GEORGE SAND)
    oreok
     
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    Откуда: thessaloniki / greece


    Новое сообщениеот oreok » Чт 10 ноя 2005, 17:54

    8 NOVEMBER 2005

    If the unique, outstanding diva GRETA GARBO was still alive, she would have celebrated her 100th birthday. Nevertheless, she's alive in the hearts of her admirers and she gained her place in history, making herself immortal.

    The french actor and living legend of French film ALAIN DELON celebrated his 70th birthday. This man is still performing and rather successful. He's great, I love him and he's one of those men and artists who get better the more they mature !!! There are only a few guys on this earth who, like him, get even more attractive with increasing age (Sean Connery belongs to that elite, too..... mmmmhh). DANYA you will be a gorgeous and smashing man and artist in your forties and fifties !!!!!!


    9 NOVEMBER 2005

    On this date in 1989 the BERLIN WALL came down and East Germany experienced a peaceful revolution. Finally, people got the freedom they're entitled to by birth !!! The fall of the WALL inspired all of east Europe and gradually the communist regimes lost their power. Respect to all those people who dared to go on the streets that time, risking their lives for a great idea.
    I AM ROMANTIC YOU KNOW, READY TO MAKE ANY KIND OF FOOLISHNESS FOR LOVE. (DANYA)

    A WOMAN KNOWS THE FACE OF THE MAN SHE LOVES AS A SAILOR KNOWS THE OPEN SEA (HONORE DE BALZAC)

    THE ARTIST VOCATION IS TO SEND LIGHT INTO THE HUMAN HEART (GEORGE SAND)
    oreok
     
    Сообщения: 240
    Зарегистрирован: Пт 01 июл 2005, 00:25
    Откуда: thessaloniki / greece


    Новое сообщениеот Tatiana » Вт 22 ноя 2005, 23:53

    If anybody speaks English and wants to speak Spanish tell me! I can teach it to you!
    www.bednayanastya.ya.st
    The Nastya web page, multilingual.
    www.saharaforumroman.ya.st
    Sahara Forum Roman
    Tatiana
     
    Сообщения: 6
    Зарегистрирован: Пт 16 сен 2005, 00:15
    Откуда: Oviedo, Asturias, Spain


    Новое сообщениеот zoubou » Ср 23 ноя 2005, 00:15

    If anybody speaks English and wants to speak Spanish tell me!I can teach it to you!


    ME ME ME ME!!!! I understand spanish but a little (well...... way too little I'd say)....you know just the basic stuff . :D
    There will come a time when you believe everything is finished. That will be the beginning.
    --Louis L'Amour
    Аватара пользователя

    zoubou
     
    Сообщения: 221
    Зарегистрирован: Сб 21 май 2005, 17:51


    Новое сообщениеот oreok » Вт 13 дек 2005, 19:32

    HELLO DARLINGS !!!

    YOU KNOW I THOUGHT AS WE'RE IN THE MIDDLE OF THE PRE XMAS SEASON IT MIGHT BE NICE TO GIVE SOME INTERESTING INFO ON THIS LOVELY OLD CHAP WITH THE LONG BEARD AND THE RED OUTFIT: YES !! GOOD OLD SANTA CLAUS !! I SUPPOSE THAT MANY OF US HARDLY KNOW ANYTHING ABOUT THE ORIGIN OF SANTA AND THE MYTHS THAT DEVELOPED AROUND HIM IN THE COURSE OF THE CENTURIES. AS HE PLAYS SUCH A GREAT ROLE IN WINTER AND THE XMAS SEASON IN EUROPE AND THE WESTERN WORLD IN GENERAL, LET'S HAVE A LOOK AT HISTORY.


    THE FOLLOWING PARAGRAPHS ARE TAKEN FROM THIS SITE:

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Santa_Claus



    Santa Claus (also known as Saint Nicholas, Saint Nick, Father Christmas, Kris Kringle, Santy or simply Santa) is a folk hero in various cultures who distributes gifts to children, normally on Christmas Eve. Each name is a variation of Saint Nicholas, but refers to Santa Claus.

    Father Christmas is a well-loved figure in the United Kingdom, and is now interchangeable with Santa Claus, though the two had quite different origins. The term Santa is as widely used and understood by British children as Father Christmas.

    A classic image of jolly old Saint Nick.Santa is a variant of a European folk tale based on the historical figure Saint Nicholas, a bishop from present-day Turkey, who supposedly gave presents to the poor. This inspired the mythical figure of Sinterklaas, the subject of a major celebration in the Netherlands (where his alledged birthday is celebrated), which in turn inspired both the myth and the name of Santa Claus.

    He forms an important part of the Christmas tradition throughout the Western world as well as in Latin America and Japan and other parts of East Asia.

    In many Eastern Orthodox traditions, Santa Claus visits children on New Year's Day and is identified with Saint Basil whose memory is celebrated on that day.

    Depictions of Santa Claus also have a close relationship with the Russian character of Ded Moroz ("Grandfather Frost"). He delivers presents to children and has a red coat, fur boots and long white beard. Much of the iconography of Santa Claus could be seen to derive from Russian traditions of Ded Moroz, particularly transmitted into western European culture through his German folklore equivalent, Vдterchen Frost.

    Russian Ded MorozConventionally, Santa Claus is portrayed as a kindly, round-bellied, merry, bespectacled white man in a red coat trimmed with white fur, with a long white beard. On Christmas Eve, he rides in his sleigh pulled by flying reindeer from house to house to give presents to children. To enter the house, Santa Claus comes down the chimney and exits through the fireplace. During the rest of the year he lives together with his wife Mrs. Claus and his elves manufacturing toys. Some modern depictions of Santa (often in advertising and popular entertainment) will show the elves and Santa's workshop as more of a processing and distribution facility, ordering and receiving the toys from various toy manufacturers from across the world. His home is usually given as either the North Pole in the United States (Alaska), northern Canada, Korvatunturi in Finnish Lapland, Dalecarlia in Sweden, or Greenland, depending on the tradition and country. Sometimes Santa's home is in Caesarea when he is identified as Saint Basil.

    Since most activities associated with Santa Claus are extraordinary, such as delivering presents to all of the believing children in one night, how he squeezes down chimneys, how he enters homes without chimneys, why he never dies, and how he makes reindeer fly, "magic" is usually used to explain his actions.


    Origins

    The modern Santa Claus is thought to be a composite character made up from the merging of quite separate figures.


    Ancient Christian origins

    St. Nicholas, with his crozier and miter, as he appears on a German holy card.The first of these is Saint Nicholas of Myra, an 4th century AD Christian bishop of Myra in Lycia, a province of Byzantine Anatolia, now in Turkey. Nicholas was famous for his generous gifts to the poor, in particular presenting the three impoverished daughters of a pious Christian with dowries so that they would not have to become prostitutes. He was born at Patara, province of Lycia, Asia Minor. He was very religious from an early age and devoted his life entirely to Christianity. In Europe (more precisely the Netherlands, Belgium, Austria and Germany) he is still portrayed as a bearded bishop in canonical robes. The relics of St. Nicholas were transported to Bari in southern Italy by some enterprising Italian merchants; a basilica was constructed in 1087 to house them and the area became a pilgrimage site for the devout. Saint Nicholas became revered by many as the patron saint of seamen, merchants, archers, children, prostitutes, pharmacists, lawyers, pawnbrokers, prisoners, the city of Amsterdam and of Russia. In Greece, Saint Nicholas is sometimes substituted for Saint Basil (Vasilis in Greek), a 4th century AD bishop from Caesarea. Also, a few villages in West Flanders, Belgium, celebrate a near identical figure, Sint-Maarten (Saint Martin of Tours).[1]


    Germanic folklore

    Odin, the wanderer.Prior to the Germanic peoples' conversion to Christianity, Germanic folklore contained stories about the god Odin (Wodan), who would each year, at Yule, have a great hunting party accompanied by his fellow gods and the fallen warriors residing in his realm. Children would place their boots, filled with carrots, straw or sugar, near the chimney for Odin's flying horse, Sleipnir, to eat. Odin would then reward those children for their kindness by replacing Sleipnir's food with gifts or candy [Siefker, chap. 9, esp. 171-173]. This practice survived in Belgium and the Netherlands after the adoption of Christianity and became associated with Saint Nicholas. Children still place their straw filled shoes at the chimney every winter night, and Saint Nicholas (who, unlike Santa, is still riding a horse) rewards them with candy and gifts. Odin's appearance was often similar to that of Saint Nicholas, being depicted as an old, mysterious man with a beard. (Other features, like the absense of one eye, are not found in Saint Nicholas.) This practice in turn came to America via the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam, New York and New York City prior to the British seizure in the 17th century, and evolved into the hanging of socks or stockings at the fireplace.

    Another early folk tale, originating among the Germanic tribes, tells of a holy man (sometimes Saint Nicholas), and a demon (sometimes the Devil, Krampus, or a troll). The story states that the land was terrorized by a monster who at night would slither down the chimneys and slaughter children (disembowelling them or stuffing them up the flue, or keeping them in a sack to eat later). The holy man sought out the demon, and tricked it with blessed or magical shackles (in some versions the same shackles that imprisoned Christ prior to the crucifixion, in other versions the shackles were those used to hold St. Peter or Paul of Tarsus); the demon was trapped and forced to obey the saint's orders. The saint ordered him to go to each house and make amends, by delivering gifts to the children. Depending on the version, the saint either made the demon fulfil this task every year, or the demon was so disgusted by the act of good will that it chose to be sent back to Hell.


    A white Dutchman in blackface costume and afro wig as Zwarte PietYet other versions have the demon reform under the saint's orders, and go on to recruit other elves and imps into helping him, thus becoming Santa Claus. In an alternate Dutch version, the saint is aided by Moorish slaves, commonly typified as Zwarte Piet ("Black Peter"). Some tales depict Zwarte Piet beating bad children with a rod or even taking them to Spain (formerly ruled by the Moors) in a sack.

    Another form of the above tale in Germany is of the Pelznickel or Belsnickle ("Furry Nicholas") who visited naughty children in their sleep. The name originiated from the fact that the person appeared to be a huge beast since he was covered from head to toe in furs.


    Modern origins

    The Ghost of Christmas Present, a colorized version of the original illustration by John Leech made for Charles Dickens's novel A Christmas Carol (1843).Pre-modern representations of the gift-giver from church history and folklore merged with the British character Father Christmas to create the character known to Britons and Americans as Santa Claus. Father Christmas dates back at least as far as the 17th century in Britain, and pictures of him survive from that era, portraying him as a well-nourished bearded man dressed in a long, green, fur-lined robe. He typified the spirit of good cheer at Christmas, and was reflected in the "Ghost of Christmas Present" in Charles Dickens's A Christmas Carol.

    The name Santa Claus is derived from Sinterklaas, the Dutch name for the mythical character based on St. Nicholas. He is also known there by the name of Sint Nicolaas which explains the use of the two fairly dissimilar names Santa Claus and Saint Nicholas or St. Nick.

    Sinterklaas wears clothing similar to a bishop's. He wears a red miter (a liturgical headdress worn by bishops and abbots) with a 'golden' cross and carries a bishop's staff. The connection with the original bishop of Myra is still evident here. He rides a white horse over rooftops and his helpers climb down chimneys to deposit gifts (sometimes in children's shoes by the fireplace). Sinterklaas arrives from Spain on a steamboat and is accompanied by Zwarte Piet.


    Folk tale depiction of Father Christmas riding on a goat. Perhaps an evolved version of the Swedish Tomte.Presents given during this feast are often accompanied by poems, sometimes fairly basic, sometimes quite elaborate pieces of art that mock events in the past year relating to the recipient (who is thus at the receiving end in more than one sense). The gifts themselves may be just an excuse for the wrapping, which can also be quite elaborate. The more serious gifts may be reserved for the next morning. Since the giving of presents is Sinterklaas's job presents are traditionally not given at Christmas in the Netherlands, but commercialism is starting to tap into this market.

    In other countries, the figure of Saint Nicholas was also blended with local folklore. As an example of the still surviving pagan imagery, in Nordic countries there is the Yule goat (Swedish julbock), a somewhat startling figure with horns which will deliver the presents on Christmas Eve, and a straw goat is a common Christmas decoration. Later, though, in Sweden and Norway, the gift bringer was seen as identical with the Tomte, or tomtenisse, another folklore creature. In Finland, the Yule goat is joulupukki.


    American origins

    Thomas Nast immortalized Santa Claus with an illustration for the January 3, 1863, issue of Harper's Weekly.In the Britsh colonies of North America and later the United States, British and Dutch versions of the gift-giver merged further. For example, in Washington Irving's History of New York, Sinterklaas was Americanized into "Santa Claus" but lost his bishop's apparel, and was at first pictured as a thick-bellied Dutch sailor with a pipe in a green winter coat. Irving's book was a lampoon of the Dutch culture of New York, and much of this portrait is his joking invention.

    Modern ideas of Santa Claus seemingly became canon after the publication of the poem "A Visit From St. Nicholas" (better known today as "The Night Before Christmas") in the Troy, New York, Sentinel on December 23, 1823. The poem is ascribed to Clement Clarke Moore, although there is some question as to his authorship. In this poem Santa is established as a heavyset individual with eight reindeer (who are named for the first time). Santa Claus later appeared in various colored costumes as he gradually became amalgamated with the figure of Father Christmas, but red soon became popular after he appeared wearing such on an 1885 Christmas card. Still, one of the first artists to capture Santa Claus' image as we know him today was Thomas Nast, an American cartoonist of the 19th century. In 1863, a picture of Santa illustrated by Nast appeared in Harper's Weekly (it is believed the inspiration for his image came from the Pelznickle). Another popularization came in 1902 in The Life and Adventures of Santa Claus by L. Frank Baum, author of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz.


    Specially designed Christmas labels featuring Santa Claus give a seasonal twist to these Coca-Cola bottles.Images of Santa Claus were further cemented through Haddon Sundblom's depiction of him for The Coca-Cola Company's Christmas advertising. The popularity of the image spawned urban legends that Santa Claus was in fact invented by Coca-Cola. Nevertheless, Santa Claus and Coca-Cola have been closely associated, except for 2005 when Santa was replaced in advertising by Coca-Cola's polar bears.[2]

    The image of Santa Claus as a benevolent character became reinforced with its association with charity and philanthropy, particularly organizations such as the Salvation Army. Volunteers dressed as Santa Claus typically became part of fundraising drives to aid needy families at Christmas time.

    Some suspect that the depiction of Santa at the North Pole reflected popular opinion about industry at the time. In some images of the early 20th century, Santa was depicted as personally making his toys by hand in a small workshop like a craftsman.


    A man dressed up as Santa Claus fundraising for Volunteers of America on the sidewalk of street in Chicago, Illinois, in 1902. He is wearing a mask with a beard attached. DN-0001069, Chicago Daily News negatives collection, Chicago Historical Society.Eventually, the idea emerged that he had numerous elves responsible for making the toys, but the toys were still handmade by each individual elf working in the traditional manner. By the end of the century, the reality of mass mechanized production became more fully accepted by the Western public. That shift was reflected in the modern depiction of Santa's residence—now often humorously portrayed as a fully mechanized production facility, equipped with the latest manufacturing technology, and overseen by the elves with Santa and Mrs. Claus as managers [see Nissenbaum, chap. 2; Belk, 87-100]. Many television commercials depict this as a sort of humorous business, with Santa's elves acting as a sometimes mischievously disgruntled workforce, cracking jokes and pulling pranks on their boss. Santa Claus continues to inspire writers and artists, such as in author Seabury Quinn's 1948 novel Roads. Other additions to early ideas of Santa include Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer, the ninth reindeer immortalized in a Gene Autry song, written by a Montgomery Ward copywriter. Adding even more to the legend, a current popular comic book series Jingle Belle by writer/cartoonist Paul Dini depicts Santa Claus as a harried father with a rebellious half-human, half-elf teenage daughter.


    Other possible origins

    American mycologist Jonathan Ott suggests that many of the modern features attributed to Santa Claus may somehow be derived from those of the Kamchatkan or Siberian shaman. Apparently, during the midwinter festival (holiday season) in Siberia (near the north pole), the shaman would enter a yurt (home) through the shangrak (chimney), bringing with him a sack of fly agaric mushrooms (presents) to give to the inhabitants. This type of mushroom is brightly colored red and white, like Santa Claus, though the relevance of this is questionable. The mushrooms were often hung (to dry) in front of the fireplace, much like the stockings of modern-day Christmas. Furthermore, the mushrooms were associated with reindeer who were known to eat them and become intoxicated. Reindeer are also associated with the shaman, and like Santa Claus, many people believed that the shaman could fly.[3]


    Santa Claus rituals

    Several rituals have developed around the Santa Claus figure that are normally performed by children hoping to receive gifts from him.


    Christmas Eve rituals

    In the United States, the tradition is to leave Santa a glass of milk and cookies; in Britain, he is given sherry and mince pies instead.

    British and American children also leave out a carrot for Santa's reindeer, and were traditionally told that if they are not good all year round, that they will receive a lump of coal in their stockings, although this practice is now considered archaic. Children following the Dutch custom for sinterklaas will "put out their shoe" — that is, leave hay and a carrot for his horse in a shoe before going to bed — sometimes weeks before the sinterklaas avond. The next morning they will find the hay and carrot replaced by a gift; often, this is a marzipan figurine. Naughty children were once told that they would be left a roe (a bundle of sticks) instead of sweets, but this practice has been discontinued.


    Letter writing

    Writing letters to Santa Claus has been a Christmas tradition for children for many years. These letters normally contain wishlists of toys and assertions of good behavior. Interestingly, some social scientists have found that boys and girls write different types of letters. Girls generally write more polite, longer (although they do not request more), and express more expressions of the nature of Christmas in their letters than in letters written by boys. Girls also request gifts for other people on a more frequent basis [Otnes, Kim, and Kim, 20-21].

    Many postal services allow children to send letters to Santa Claus pleading their good behavior and requesting gifts; these letters may be answered by postal workers or other volunteers. Canada Post has a special postal code for letters to Santa Claus: H0H 0H0 (see: Ho ho ho), and since 1982 over 13,000 Canadian postal workers have volunteered to write responses.[4] Sometimes children's charities answer letters in poorer communities or from children's hospitals in order to give them presents that they would not otherwise receive.


    Christian opposition to Santa Claus

    Excerpt from Josiah King's The Examination and Tryal of Father Christmas (1686), published shortly after Christmas was reinstated as a holy day in England. Folger Shakespeare Library, Washington, D.C.Despite Santa Claus's mixed Christian roots, he has become a secular representation of Christmas. As such, a small number of primarily fundamentalist Christian churches dislike the secular focus on Santa Claus and the materialist focus that present-giving gives to the holiday. Such a condemnation of Santa Claus is not a twentieth century phenomenon, but originated among some Protestant groups of the 16th century and was prevalent among the Puritans of 17th century England and America banned the holiday as either pagan or Roman Catholic. Following the English Civil War, under Oliver Cromwell's government Christmas was banned. Following the Restoration of the monarchy and Puritans were out of power in England, the ban on Christmas was satirized in works such as Josiah King's The Examination and Tryal of Old Father Christmas; Together with his Clearing by the Jury (1686) [Nissenbaum, chap. 1].[13] Rev. Paul Nedergaard, a clergyman in Copenhagen, Denmark, drew the ire of Danish citizens in 1958 when he declared Santa to be a "pagan goblin" after Santa's image was used on fundraising materials for a Danish welfare organization [Clar, 337]. One prominent American denomination that refuses to celebrate Santa Claus or Christmas for similar reasons are the Jehovah's Witnesses, but some Christians of all stripes have oppositions to Santa Claus of some sort.[14] Some Christians would prefer that the focus be given on the actual birth of Jesus. Some parents are uncomfortable about "lying" to their children about the existence of Santa. Some parents worry that their children might think that if they were deceived by their parents about Santa Claus, they might be deceiving them about God's existence as well. While these viewpoints of do not represent the majority of Christians, their comments have drawn the attention of critics such as the fictional Landover Baptist Church, whose website satirizes and parodies this viewpoint.[15]


    THE HISTORICAL PERSON "SAINT NICHOLAS"

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Nicholas_of_Myra



    Saint Nicholas is the common name for Saint Nicholas of Myra, who lived in 4th century Byzantine Lycia, (modern Turkey), who had a reputation for secret gift-giving. This is as much as is generally known about him in the West.

    This historical character was the inspiration for a mythical figure known as Nikolaus in Germany and Sinterklaas in the Netherlands and Flanders, which in turn was the inspiration for the myth of Santa Claus. Sinterklaas (a contracted form of Sint Nicolaas) is a major celebration in the Netherlands (see below). Among Orthodox Christians, he is remembered with more reverence and less frivolity.

    Saint Nicholas is revered by many as the patron saint of seamen, merchants, archers, children, prostitutes, pharmacists, lawyers, pawnbrokers, prisoners, the city of Amsterdam and of Russia.

    Nicholas the clergyman

    Nicholas of Myra (also Nikolaus) in Lycia, Asia Minor, (lived c. 270 - 345/352) was a 4th century bishop and is a Christian saint. His feast day is December 6, presumably the date of his death. In the Netherlands 5 December is known as his feast: this is Sinterklaasavond, or St. Nicholas' Eve. Among Christians, he is also known as the "Wonderworker". Several acts of kindness and miracles are attributed to him. Historical accounts often confuse him with the later Nicholas of Sion.

    Nicholas was born in Asia Minor during the 3rd century at Patara in the province of Lycia,, at a time when the region was Hellenistic in its culture and outlook. Nicholas became bishop of the city of Myra. He was very religious from an early age and devoted his life entirely to Christianity. He is said to have been born to relatively affluent Christian parents in Patara, Lycia, Asia Minor, Roman Empire where he also received his early schooling. He came to Myra to continue his studies. A paternal uncle of his introduced him to the local bishop. The latter is said to have seen potential to the youth and took Nicholas under his patronage. Nicholas received his ordination as a priest at an early age. When his parents died Nicholas still received his inheritance but is said to have given it away in charity.

    Nicholas' early activities as a priest are said to have occurred during the reign of co-ruling Roman Emperors Diocletian (reigned 284 - 305) and Maximian (reigned 286 - 305) from which comes the estimation of his age. Diocletian issued an edict in 303 authorising the systematic persecution of Christians across the Empire. Following the abdication of the two Emperors on May 1, 305 the policies of their successors towards Christians were different. In the Western part of the Empire Constantius Chlorus (reigned 305 - 306) put an end to the systematic persecution upon receiving the throne. In the Eastern part Galerius (reigned 305 - 311) continued the persecution until 311 when he issued a general edict of toleration from his deathbed. The persecution of 303 - 311 is considered to be the longest in the history of the Empire. Nicholas survived this period although his activities at the time are uncertain.

    Following Galerius' death his surviving co-ruler Licinius (reigned 307 - 324) mostly tolerated Christians. As a result their community was allowed to further develop, and the various bishops who acted as their leaders managed to concentrate religious, social and political influence as well as wealth in their hands. In many cases they acted as the heads of their respective cities. It is apparently in this period that Nicholas rose to become bishop of Myra. Judging from tradition he was probably well-loved and respected in his area mostly as a result of his charitable activities. As with other bishops of the time, Nicholas' popularity would serve to ensure his position and influence during and after this period.

    The destruction of several pagan temples is also attributed to him, among them one temple of Artemis (also known as Diana). Because the celebration of Diana's birth is on December 6, some authors have speculated that this date was deliberately chosen for Nicholas' feast day to overshadow or replace the pagan celebrations.

    Nicholas is also known for coming to the defence of the falsely accused, often preventing them from being executed, and for his prayers on behalf of sailors and other travellers. The popular veneration of Nicholas as a saint seems to have started relatively early. Justinian I, Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire (reigned 527 - 565) is reported to have built a temple (i.e. a church building) in Nicholas's honour in Constantinople, the Roman capital of the time.


    Bishop Nicholas at the First Ecumenical Council

    In 324 Licinius was defeated in a war against his Western co-ruler Constantine I of the Roman Empire (reigned 306 - 337). The end of the war found the Roman Empire unified under the rule of Constantine. In place of tolerance his policies towards Christians consisted of active support. Under his patronage the Christian church experienced an age of prosperity. But the relative peace of his reign brought to the forefront the internal conflict within contemporary Christianity. One of the apparent main reasons of this conflict was the failure to agree to a commonly accepted concept about God in general and Jesus in particular. At this times the teachings of Arius in Alexandria, Egypt were gaining popular support but also attracting great opposition. They would form the basis of Arianism. Emerging fanaticism in both opposing factions only resulted in spreading tumult across the Empire.

    Deciding to address the problem as a matter of the state, Constantine called the First Council of Nicaea which also was the first Ecumenical council in 325. The number of attendants at the council is uncertain with Eusebius of Caesarea reporting as few as 250 and Athanasius of Alexandria as many as 318. In any case Nicholas is usually counted among them and was noted as an opponent of Arianism.

    A later writer claimed that after Arius had presented his case against Jesus' divinity to the Council, Nicholas hit Arius in the face out of indignation. Nicholas was kicked out of the Council for this offence, and jailed as well. However, according to this account, that night the Virgin Mary appeared in a vision to many of the bishops of the Council, telling them to forgive Nicholas, for he had done it out of love for her Son. They released Nicholas and allowed him back into the process the next day.

    The council lasted from May 20 to June 19, 325 and resulted in the declaration of the Nicene Creed and the formal condemnation of Arianism. The books of Arius and his followers were condemned to be burned but the execution of this decision was left at the hands of each bishop for their respective territories. To what point this decision was followed remains uncertain.

    Following this apparent victory to his faction Nicholas returned to Myra. He is applauded by later Christian writers for keeping Myra free of Arianism. But the decisions of the council failed to stop the spread of Arianism. In fact the tides soon turned and in his later years Arianism managed to win favour with Constantine. In fact Constantine was baptised by Eusebius of Nicomedia, an Arian bishop who had also attended the council, shortly before his death on May 22, 337. Constantine was succeeded by his three surviving sons: Constantine II of the Roman Empire (reigned 337 - 340), Constantius II (reigned 337 - 361) and Constans (reigned 337 - 350). Constantius originally received the Eastern part of the Empire but the death of his brothers left the entire Empire under his control. During his reign he strongly favoured Arianism by seeking to place Arian bishops in most positions. There is no indication that Nicholas was affected by these policies and he remained in his position till his death. This lack of disturbance by the Arian Emperor has been seen as indicating the strong support Nicholas had gained among the people of his territory. According to this reasoning not even Constantius would risk a possible revolt by removing a popular bishop.


    Abduction of his relics

    On August 26, 1071 Romanus IV, Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire (reigned 1068 - 1071) faced Sultan Alp Arslan of the Seljuk Turks (reigned 1059 - 1072) in the Battle of Manzikert. The battle ended in humiliating defeat and capture for Romanus. As a result the Empire temporarily lost control over most of Asia Minor to the invading Seljuk Turks. It would regain its control over Asia Minor during the reign of Alexius I Comnenus, (reigned 1081 - 1118). But early in his reign Myra was overtaken by the Islamic invaders. Taking advantage of the confusion sailors from Bari, Italy seized the remains of the saint over the objections of the Orthodox monks then caring for them. Returning to Bari they brought the remains with them. The remains arrived on May 9, 1087. Some observers have reported seeing myrrh exude from these relics.

    There is now a Greek chapel in place at Bari for Eastern Orthodox liturgies for pilgrims of that faith, so that nobody is excluded from the veneration. Turkey continues to demand the return of the relics.


    Formal veneration of the saint

    Among the Greeks and Italians he is a favourite of sailors, fishermen, ships and sailing. As such he has become over time the patron saint of several cities maintaining harbours. In centuries of Greek folklore, Nicholas was seen as "The Lord of the Sea", often described by modern Greek scholars as more or less a christianised version of Poseidon. In modern Greece, he is still easily among the most recognisable saints and December 6 finds many cities celebrating their patron saint. He is also the patron saint of all of Greece.

    In addition, he is celebrated as a great gift-giver in several Western European countries. His reputation for gift giving comes partly from a story of three young women who were too poor to afford a dowry for their marriages: as each reached a marriageable age, Nicholas surreptitiously threw a bag of gold into the house at night. Some versions of the legend say that the girls' father, trying to discover their benefactor, kept watch on the third occasion, but Nicholas dropped the third bag down the chimney instead. For his helping the "financially challenged", St. Nicholas is the patron saint of pawnbrokers; the three gold balls traditionally hung outside a pawnshop are symbolic of the three sacks of gold. People then began to suspect that he was behind a large number of other anonymous gifts to the poor, using the inheritance from his wealthy parents. After he died, people in the region continued to give to the poor anonymously, and such gifts were still often attributed to St. Nicholas. It should be noted perhaps that a nearly identical story is attributed by Greek folklore to Basil of Caesarea. Basil's feast day on January 1 is also considered a time of exchanging gifts.

    Due to modern association with Christmas, Saint Nicholas is a patron saint of Christmas, as well as pawnbrokers (see above). He was also a patron of the Varangian Guard of the Eastern Roman Emperors, who protected his relics in Bari.


    In iconography

    St Nicholas, the patron saint of Russian merchants. Fresco by Dionisius from the Ferapontov Monastery.The holy person of St. Nicholas is a popular subject portrayed on countless Eastern Orthodox icons, particularly Russian ones.

    "Icons are quite literally meant to be 'Windows Into Heaven' and to instill in the viewer an attitude of prayerful reflection on the Divine. In Russia icons were not only displayed in churches, but are given the place of honour in many homes, thus serving as a daily reminder to live in strict accordance with Christian virtue, values and duties." (Source: The InstaPLANET Cultural Universe).

    Saint Nicholas the festive gift-giver

    Saint Nicholas Day is a festivity for children in much of Europe related to surviving legends of the saint, and particularly his reputation as a bringer of gifts. The American and British Santa Claus derives from this festivity, the name 'Santa Claus' being a degeneration of the Dutch word Sinterklaas.

    Some elements of this part of the Saint Nicholas tradition could be traced back to the Germanic god Wodan (Odin). The appearance is similar to some portrayals of this god. In the Saint Nicholas tradition in the Netherlands he rides a horse over the rooftops, and this may be derived from Odin's riding through the sky. Also his assistants, the Zwarte Pieten ('Black Peters') may be a remnant of the raven that accompanied Wodan. It may also be a reference to African slaves.

    The history of the festive Saint Nicholas celebration is complex and reflects conflicts between Protestantism and Catholicism. Since Nicholas was a canonised saint, Martin Luther replaced the festival that had become associated with the Papacy with a "Christkind" (Christ child) celebration on Christmas Eve. The Nicholas celebrations still remain a part of tradition among many Protestants, albeit on a much lower scale than Christmas. The Protestant Netherlands, however, retain a much larger Saint Nicholas tradition. Many Catholics, on the other hand, have adopted Luther's Christkind.


    Celebration in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, Hungary and Luxembourg

    In Germany, Nikolaus is usually celebrated on a small scale. Many children put a boot, called Nikolaus-Stiefel, outside their front doors on the night of December 5 to December 6. St. Nicholas fills the boot with gifts, and at the same time checks up on the children to see if they were good. If they were not, they will have charcoal in their boots instead. Sometimes a disguised Nikolaus also visits the children at school or in their homes and asks them if they "have been good" (sometimes ostensibly checking a book for their record), handing out presents on a per-behaviour basis. This has become more lenient in recent decades.

    But for many children, Nikolaus also elicited fear, as he was often accompanied by Knecht Ruprecht, who would threaten to beat, or sometimes actually eat the children for misbehaviour. Knecht Rupert furthermore was equipped with goatlegs. In Switzerland, where he is called Schmutzli, he would threaten to put bad children in a sack and take them back to the Black Forest. In other accounts he would throw the sack into the river, drowning the naughty children within. These traditions were implemented more rigidly in Catholic countries such as Austria. In highly Catholic regions, the local priest was informed by the parents about their children's behaviour and would then personally visit the homes in the traditional Christian garment and threaten them with rod-beatings. In parts of Austria, Krampusse, whom local tradition says are Nikolaus's helpers (in reality, typically children of poor families), roamed the streets during the festival. They wore masks and dragged chains behind them, even occasionally hurling them towards children in their way. These Krampuslдufe (Krampus runs) still exist, although perhaps less violent than in the past. In the Czech Republic and Slovakia, Mikulбљ is often also accompanied by an angel who acts as a counterbalance to the ominous Knecht Ruprecht (čert). In Slovenia Saint Nikolaus (Miklavћ) is accompanied by an angel and a devil (parkelj) corresponding austrian Krampuss. In Luxembourg "Kleeschen" is accompanied by the "Houseker" a frightening helper wearing a brown monk's habit.
    I AM ROMANTIC YOU KNOW, READY TO MAKE ANY KIND OF FOOLISHNESS FOR LOVE. (DANYA)

    A WOMAN KNOWS THE FACE OF THE MAN SHE LOVES AS A SAILOR KNOWS THE OPEN SEA (HONORE DE BALZAC)

    THE ARTIST VOCATION IS TO SEND LIGHT INTO THE HUMAN HEART (GEORGE SAND)
    oreok
     
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    Новое сообщениеот oreok » Вс 01 янв 2006, 18:51

    1 JANUARY 2006


    DEAR “DANYA FORUM” MEMBERS AND VISITORS,

    A VERY HAPPY NEW YEAR !!!!!



    ONE REASON WHY 2006 IS SPECIAL ALREADY IS THAT THIS MONTH, 250 YEARS AGO, ONE OF EUROPE’S GREATEST, MOST INFLUENTIAL AND GENIUS COMPOSERS OF CLASSICAL MUSIC WAS BORN:

    WOLFGANG AMADEUS MOZART

    THEREFORE, TODAY AUSTRIA / VIENNA OFFICIALLY DECLARED THE “MOZART YEAR” OPEN !!!


    TO HONOUR THIS MAGNIFICENT MUSICAL SPIRIT, I THOUGHT IT MIGHT BE NICE AND INTERESTING TO PLACE SOME USEFUL INFO AT THIS POST AND TO PROVIDE YOU WITH SOME GOOD LINKS ON MOZART, TOO. HOPE YOU’LL LIKE IT AND WISH YOU FUN !!!!


    The following paragraphs (this is not the complete article) on Mozart’s life and travels were taken from this site:

    http://www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wolfgang_Amadeus_Mozart

    WOLFGANG AMADEUS MOZART

    Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (January 27, 1756 – December 5, 1791) is among the most significant and enduringly popular composers of European classical music and is widely regarded as one of history's greatest composers. His enormous output includes works that are widely acknowledged as pinnacles of symphonic, chamber, piano, operatic, and choral music. Many of his works are part of the standard concert repertory and are widely recognized as masterpieces of the classical style.

    LIFE

    FAMILY AND EARLY CHILDHOOD YEARS

    Mozart was born in Salzburg to Leopold and Anna Maria Pertl Mozart. He was baptized the day after his birth at St. Rupert's Cathedral. The baptismal record gives his name in Latinized form as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus (Gottlieb) Mozart. Of these names, the first two were saint's names not employed in everyday life and the fourth was variously translated in Mozart's lifetime form as Amadeus (Latin), Gottlieb (German), and Amadé (French); Mozart himself preferred the third (see Mozart's name).

    Mozart's musical ability became apparent when he was about three years old. His father Leopold was one of Europe's leading musical pedagogues, whose influential textbook Versuch einer gründlichen Violinschule ("Essay on the fundamentals of violin playing") was published in 1756, the year of Mozart's birth. Mozart received intensive musical training from his father, including instruction in both clavier and violin.

    THE YEARS OF TRAVEL

    Leopold realized that he could earn a substantial income by showcasing his son as a Wunderkind in the courts of Europe. Mozart soon gained fame as a musical prodigy capable of such feats as playing blindfolded or competently improvising at length on difficult passages. His older sister Maria Anna was a talented pianist and accompanied her brother on the earlier tours. Mozart wrote a number of piano pieces, in particular duets and duos, to play with her. On one occasion when Mozart became very ill, Leopold expressed more concern over the loss of income than over his son's well-being. Constant travel and cold weather may have contributed to his subsequent illness later in life.

    During his formative years, Mozart completed several journeys throughout Europe, beginning with an exhibition in 1762 at the Court of the Elector of Bavaria in Munich, then in the same year at the Imperial Court in Vienna. A long concert tour spanning three and a half years followed, taking him with his father to the courts of Munich, Mannheim, Paris, London, The Hague, again to Paris, and back home via Zürich, Donaueschingen, and Munich. They went to Vienna again in late 1767 and remained there until December 1768.

    After one year in Salzburg, three trips to Italy followed: from December 1769 to March 1771, from August to December 1771, and from October 1772 to March 1773. During the first of these trips, Mozart met Andrea Luchesi in Venice and G.B. Martini in Bologna and was accepted as a member of the famous Accademia Filarmonica. A highlight of the Italian journey, now an almost legendary tale, occurred when he heard Gregorio Allegri's Miserere once in performance in the Sistine Chapel then wrote it out in its entirety from memory, only returning to correct minor errors; he thus produced the first illegal copy of this closely-guarded property of the Vatican [source documents].

    On July 3rd 1778, accompanied by his mother, Mozart began a tour of Europe that included Munich, Mannheim, and Paris, where his mother died.
    During his trips, Mozart met a great number of musicians and acquainted himself with the works of other great composers. A particularly important influence was Johann Christian Bach, who befriended Mozart in London in 1764–65. Bach's work is often taken to be an inspiration for the distinctive surface texture of Mozart's music, though not its architecture or drama.
    Even non-musicians caught Mozart's attention. He was so taken by the sound created by Benjamin Franklin's glass harmonica that he composed several pieces of music for it.

    MOZART IN VIENNA

    In 1781 Mozart visited Vienna in the company of his employer, the harsh Prince-Archbishop Colloredo, and soon fell out with him. According to Mozart's own testimony, he was dismissed - literally - "with a kick in the seat of the pants." Mozart chose to settle and develop his career in Vienna after its aristocracy began to take an interest in him.
    On August 4, 1782, he married Constanze Weber (1763-1842) (also spelled "Costanze"), albeit against his father's wishes. Although they had six children, only two survived infancy. Neither of these two, Karl Thomas (1784–1858) and Franz Xaver Wolfgang (later a minor composer himself; 1791–1844), married or had children.

    1782 was an auspicious year for Mozart's career; his opera Die Entführung aus dem Serail ("The Abduction from the Seraglio") was a great success and he began a series of concerts at which he premiered his own piano concertos as conductor and soloist.

    In 1782–83, Mozart became closely acquainted with the work of J.S. Bach and Handel as a result of the influence of Baron Gottfried van Swieten, who owned many manuscripts of works by the Baroque masters. Mozart's study of these works led first to a number of works imitating Baroque style and later had a powerful influence on his own personal musical language, for example the fugal passages in Die Zauberflöte ("The Magic Flute") and the 41st Symphony.

    In 1783, Wolfgang and Constanze visited Leopold in Salzburg, but the visit was not a success, as his father did not take to Constanze. However, the visit saw the composition of one of Mozart's great liturgical pieces, the Mass in C Minor, which was premiered in Salzburg, and is presently one of his best known works.

    In his early Vienna years, Mozart met Joseph Haydn and the two composers became friends. When Haydn visited Vienna, they sometimes played in an impromptu string quartet. Mozart's six quartets dedicated to Haydn date from 1782–85, and are often judged to be his response to Haydn's Opus 33 set from 1781. Haydn was soon in awe of Mozart, and when he first heard the last three of Mozart's series he told Leopold, "Before God and as an honest man I tell you that your son is the greatest composer known to me either in person or by name. He has taste, and what is more, the most profound knowledge of composition."
    During the years 1782-1785, Mozart put on a series of concerts that featured performances by himself of his piano concertos, widely considered among his greatest works. These concerts were financially successful. After 1785 Mozart performed far less and wrote only a few concertos. Maynard Solomon conjectures that he may have suffered from hand injuries; another possibility is that the fickle public ceased to attend the concerts in the same numbers.

    As an adult, Mozart, influenced by the ideas of the eighteenth century European Enlightenment, became a Freemason (1784). His lodge was a specifically Catholic rather than deistic one and he worked fervently and successfully to convert his father before the latter's death in 1787. His last opera, Die Zauberflöte, includes Masonic themes and allegory. He was in the same Masonic Lodge as Haydn.

    Mozart's life was fraught with financial difficulty and illness. Often, he received no payment for his work, and what sums he did receive were quickly consumed by his extravagant lifestyle.
    Mozart spent 1786 in Vienna in an apartment which may be visited today at Domgasse 5 behind St Stephen's Cathedral; it was here that Mozart composed Le nozze di Figaro. He followed this in 1787 with one of his greatest works, Don Giovanni.

    MOZART AND PRAGUE

    Mozart had a special relationship with Prague and the people of Prague. The audience here celebrated their Figaro with the much deserved reverence he was missing in his hometown Vienna. His quote "My Praguers understand me" (Meine Prager verstehen mich) became very famous in the Bohemian lands. Many tourists follow his tracks in Prague and visit the Mozart Museum of the Villa Bertramka where they can enjoy a chamber concert. In Prague, Don Giovanni premiered on October 29, 1787 at the Theatre of the Estates. In the later years of his life, Prague provided Mozart many financial resources from commissions. German poet Eduard Mörike's well-known novella Mozart auf der Reise nach Prag ("Mozart's on the way to Prague") is a fantasy about the composer's trip to that city in order to present Don Giovanni (the story, however, relates episodes that happen along the way, not in Prague itself).

    FINAL ILLNESS AND DEATH

    Mozart's final illness and death are difficult scholarly topics, obscured by Romantic legends and replete with conflicting theories. Scholars disagree about the course of decline in Mozart's health—particularly at what point Mozart became aware of his impending death and whether this awareness influenced his final works. The Romantic view holds that Mozart declined gradually and that his outlook and compositions paralleled this decline. In opposition to this, some contemporary scholarship points out correspondence from Mozart's final year indicating that he was in good cheer, as well as evidence that Mozart's death was sudden and a shock to his family and friends. Mozart's grave remains unmarked. His monument is his music.

    The actual cause of Mozart's death is also a matter of conjecture. His death record listed "hitziges Frieselfieber" ("severe miliary fever"), a description that does not suffice to identify the cause as it would be diagnosed in modern medicine. Dozens of theories have been proposed, including trichinosis, mercury poisoning, and rheumatic fever. The contemporary practice of bleeding medical patients is also cited as a contributing cause.

    Mozart died around 1 a.m. on December 5, 1791, while he was working on his final composition, the Requiem. A younger composer, Franz Xaver Süssmayr, was engaged by Constanze to complete the Requiem. He was not the only composer asked to complete the Requiem but is associated with it over others due to his significant contribution.

    According to popular legend, Mozart was penniless and forgotten when he died, and was buried in a pauper's grave. In fact, though he was no longer as fashionable in Vienna as before, he continued to have a well-paid job at court and receive substantial commissions from more distant parts of Europe, Prague in particular. Many of his begging letters survive but they are evidence not so much of poverty as of his habit of spending more than he earned. He was not buried in a "mass grave" but in a regular communal grave according to the 1783 laws. Though the original grave on St. Marx cemetery was lost, memorial gravestones have been placed there and on Zentralfriedhof.

    In 1809, Constanze married Danish diplomat Georg Nikolaus von Nissen (1761–1826). Being a fanatical admirer of Mozart, he edited vulgar passages out of many of the composer's letters and wrote a Mozart biography.



    In addition, here are some “MOZART” sites (all in English) on the web you might like to visit:

    THE OFFICIAL AUSTRIAN “MOZART YEAR” WEB PAGE

    http://www.mozart2006.net/eng/index.html



    THE “MOZART 2006” WEB PAGE OF THE FAMOUS FESTIVAL OF CLASSICAL MUSIC IN SALZBURG

    http://www.salzburgfestival.at/home_e.php?lang=2


    EVENTS AND CONCERTS IN THE “MOZART YEAR 2006” IN AUSTRIA

    http://www.viennaticket.com/english/mozartyear.html
    I AM ROMANTIC YOU KNOW, READY TO MAKE ANY KIND OF FOOLISHNESS FOR LOVE. (DANYA)

    A WOMAN KNOWS THE FACE OF THE MAN SHE LOVES AS A SAILOR KNOWS THE OPEN SEA (HONORE DE BALZAC)

    THE ARTIST VOCATION IS TO SEND LIGHT INTO THE HUMAN HEART (GEORGE SAND)
    oreok
     
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    Новое сообщениеот oreok » Вт 14 фев 2006, 01:38

    TO PAY TRIBUTE TO THIS VERY SPECIAL DAY IN THE YEAR, VALENTINE'S DAY, WHEN WE CELEBRATE LOVE, FALLING IN LOVE AND WHEN WE DEVOTE OURSELVES TO OUR BELOVED SWEETHEART, I THOUGHT IT NICE TO ADD SOME INTERESTING INFO ON THE HISTORY AND ORIGIN OF THIS HAPPY DAY.


    THE FOLLOWING INFO IS TAKEN FROM THIS SITE:


    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valentine's_Day


    St. Valentine's Day falls on February 14, and is the traditional day on which lovers in certain cultures let each other know about their love, commonly by sending Valentine's cards, which are often anonymous. The history of Valentine's day can be traced back to a Catholic Church feast day, in honor of Saint Valentine. The day's associations with romantic love arrived after the High Middle Ages, during which the concept of romantic love was formulated.

    The day is now most closely associated with the mutual exchange of love notes in the form of "valentines." Modern Valentine symbols include the heart-shaped outline and the figure of the winged Cupid. Since the 19th century, the practice of hand writing notes has largely given way to the exchange of mass-produced greeting cards. The Greeting Card Association estimates that, world-wide, approximately one billion valentine cards are sent each year, making the day the second largest card-sending holiday of the year behind Christmas. The association also estimates that women purchase approximately 85 percent of all valentines.

    Contents

    1 History
    1.1 February fertility festivals
    1.2 Valentine
    1.3 Medieval era
    1.4 Valentine's Day in the USA
    2 Valentine's Day in Other Cultures
    3 External links


    History

    February fertility festivals
    The association of the middle of February with love and fertility dates to ancient times. In the calendar of Ancient Athens, the period between mid January and mid February was the month of Gamelion, which was dedicated to the sacred marriage of Zeus and Hera.

    In Ancient Rome, the day of February 15 was Lupercalia, the festival of Lupercus, the god of fertility, who was represented as half-naked and dressed in goat skins. As part of the purification ritual, the priests of Lupercus would sacrifice goats to the god, and after drinking wine, they would run through the streets of Rome holding pieces of the goat skin above their heads, touching anyone they met. Young women especially would come forth voluntarily for the occasion, in the belief that being so touched would render them fruitful and bring easy childbirth.

    According to the Catholic Encyclopedia (1908), at least three different Saints Valentine, all of them martyrs and all quite obscure, are mentioned in the early martyrologies under the date of February 14:

    a priest in Rome who suffered martyrdom in the second half of the 3rd century and was buried on the Via Flaminia.
    a bishop of Interamna (modern Terni) also suffered martyrdom in the second half of the 3rd century and was also buried on the Via Flaminia, but in a different location than the priest.
    a martyr in North Africa, about whom little else is known.
    The connection between St. Valentine and romantic love is not mentioned in any early histories and is regarded by secular historians as purely a matter of legend (see below). The feast of St. Valentine was first declared to be on February 14 by Pope Gelasius I in 496. There is a widespread legend that he created the day to counter the practice held on Lupercalia of young men and women pairing off as lovers by drawing their names out of an urn, but this practice is not attested in any sources from that era.

    In the 19th century, relics of St. Valentine were donated by Pope Gregory XVI to the Whitefriar Street Carmelite Church in Dublin, Ireland, which has become a popular place of pilgrimage on February 14.

    In 1969, as part of a larger effort to pare down the number of saint days of purely legendary origin, the Church removed St. Valentine's Day as an official holiday from its calendar.


    Valentine

    The influential Gnostic teacher Valentinius was a candidate for Bishop of Rome in 143. In his teachings, the marriage bed assumed a central place in his version of Christian love, an emphasis sharply in contrast with the asceticism of mainstream Christianity. Stephan A. Hoeller assesses Valentinius on the subject : "In addition to baptism, anointing, eucharist, the initiation of priests and the rites of the dying, the Valentinian Gnosis mentions prominently two great and mysterious sacraments called 'redemption' (apolytrosis) and 'bridal chamber' respectively." [1].


    Medieval era

    Swedish calendar showing St Valentine's Day 14 February 1712The first recorded association of St. Valentine's Day with romantic love was in the 14th century in England and France, where February 14 was traditionally the day on which birds paired off to mate. This belief is mentioned in Geoffrey Chaucer's Parlement of Foules (1381). It was common during that era for lovers to exchange notes on this day and to call each other their "Valentines". A 14th century valentine is said to be in the collection of the British Library. It is probable that many of the legends about St. Valentine were invented during this period. Among the legends are ones that assert that:

    On the evening before St. Valentine was to be martyred for being a Christian, he passed a love note to his jailer's daughter which read, "From Your Valentine."
    During a ban on marriages of Roman soldiers by the Emperor Claudius II, St. Valentine secretly helped arrange marriages.
    In most versions of these legends, February 14 is the date associated with his martyrdom.
    I AM ROMANTIC YOU KNOW, READY TO MAKE ANY KIND OF FOOLISHNESS FOR LOVE. (DANYA)

    A WOMAN KNOWS THE FACE OF THE MAN SHE LOVES AS A SAILOR KNOWS THE OPEN SEA (HONORE DE BALZAC)

    THE ARTIST VOCATION IS TO SEND LIGHT INTO THE HUMAN HEART (GEORGE SAND)
    oreok
     
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    Новое сообщениеот samantha_xu » Сб 18 фев 2006, 13:19

    Hi, everyone,
    I'm from China. I'd like to say something about the situation of Russian-studying here. Many many years ago Russian was the first foreign language in China which means every school then taught Russian rather than English. But most of people here in China are not bilingual. Now there are still schools teach Russian as first foreign language (most of them are in Heilongjiang Province which was a territory near the east part of Russian). As for college education, the best Russian Department in China is in the University of Heilongjiang. I study English in my secondary school. And then German as my second foreign language. Now I am studying Russian just for fun(guess for whom :wink: ). However, except English, the most popular foreign languages in the part of China(that's east China near Shanghai) I live are Japanese and Korean.
    That's about the foreign language-studying situation here in my hometown. Wish could help! Thank you for reading.
    Was bändigt alle uns - das Gemine.
    Аватара пользователя

    samantha_xu
     
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    Новое сообщениеот mikomi » Чт 20 сен 2007, 23:16

    wow, you know so many languages.
    I have only started learning Japanese but that is definitely not because of Daniil Strakhov lol. you can guess for whom from my sig and my avatar.....if ofcourse you are aware of who that is.
    I am from Ukraine and I have to admit that yes - we speak Russian and Ukrainian fluently....some Ukrainians unfortunately know only Russian...........I know and speak both Russian and Ukrainian but I like my native language more....thouh I speak UA seldomly. I have a friend in America who was thinking that Russian and Ukrainian are the same languages untill I explained the differences which are huge by the way........that is as if someone would say that Japanese is very similar to Chinese.......and I know for sure now learning Japanese that it is not true
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    Новое сообщениеот danya » Вс 01 июн 2008, 09:58

    hello eveyone!

    I am from Romania, but i have been studying Russian for three years now.
    We also have here an Ukrainean department. It`s true that Russian and Ukrainean are very similar, but it`s fair i think to make a distinction.
    It`s true that Russian is the "source" language and that Ukrainean developed from it, but nowadays it`s useful to identifiy it as a different linguistic system.
    As for literature, wer can`t think of a comparison between them. Russia has a huge literature!!
    danya
     
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